Singapore Public Housing, HDB Projects
Singapore’s public housing developments, managed by the Housing and Development Board (HDB) is generally regarded as a successful example of urban/national public housing. Beginning with aggressive squatter clearance and housing development in the early 1960s, Singapore “solved” its slums and squatter issues in ten years. The “HDB flats,” as they are locally known, are famously tightly controlled, with specific designs not just on built environment but on racial quotas (the “Ethnic Integration Policy”) and citizen/permanent resident ratios. 82% of Singaporeans now live in HDB flats.